5G standard, the game between ZTE and Bell Labs, Qualcomm

The 5G standard will form the first version by 2018. In order to meet the development goals of the future 5G “information to the touch of everything”, the current information and communication industry has shown great enthusiasm for 5G technology research and development, and communication equipment companies are also targeting 5G. Technology has intensified innovation, and some revolutionary technologies have emerged, and it is likely to be the basis of the future mobile communication network. Promoting a unified 5G standard has basically become the consensus of the industry. In this global "technical beauty pageant", innovation and integration, game and compromise will continue throughout.

ZTE builds label technology

Recently, the first global 5G conference jointly sponsored by IMT-2020 (5G) Promotion Group and EU 5G PPP, Korea 5G Forum, Japan 5GMF and US 5G Americas was held in Beijing. Dr. Xiang Xiang, the chief scientist of ZTE Corporation, delivered a speech on “Commit to Global 5G Ecosystem” at the conference, and proposed the new multi-access and waveform technology for the first time, including MUSA (multi-user shared access) and FB-OFDM (subcarrier filtering). OFDM), UAI (Unified Air Interface), Massive MIMO and other technologies, and called for joint development with the industry to promote 5G health.

Create ZTE labels with revolutionary technology

ZTE will consider the proposed multi-access technology MUSA, the new waveform technology FB-OFDM, including the previously proposed LDPC coding technology as ZTE's label technology.

Multiple access and waveform technology are the cornerstones of wireless communication systems with high technical thresholds. Xiang Jingying said in an interview with China Electronics News that ZTE's multi-site technology MUSA is revolutionary with respect to 4G. It is implemented in a non-orthogonal network using simple complex multi-dimensional short codes. The access process, while bringing great benefits to the network, also has great complexity. The huge benefits are reflected in the fact that the number of users can be increased by 3 to 6 times on the basis of the current, which will greatly increase the number of connected users of the Internet of Things. And efficiency. FB-OFDM achieves subcarrier-level filtering by a simple Poly-phase filter, improving the out-of-band rejection by more than 20dB.

“We have greatly simplified the complexity of the calculations at the same time.” Xiang Jiying said, “The biggest feature of our three proposals is to simplify the complexity. For example, our proposed subcarrier filtering technology has 1200 subcarriers. If not, this is not simplified. The amount of computation is 1200 times that of a subcarrier. Now we use a windowing technique to make 1200 operations into one step, which allows us to achieve the best performance at a small cost."

"According to the general rule complexity, it is in the late stage of standard implementation, but often when it is found that the operation is particularly complicated, there is no way to change it. Problems such as high power consumption will occur, and we have encountered such good performance. But the very complicated theory, these theories can often only be a prototype, and encountered many difficulties in industrialization." Xiang Jiying said, "We have considered the complexity problem from the beginning, is the company's architecture. It is decided that ZTE's 5G standards, products and operations are a line. Therefore, we are considering how to implement the products while proposing standards. Therefore, based on this feature, our company's 5G proposal is also highly valued in 3GPP. ”

According to reports, after a long-term technical accumulation, ZTE has become one of the few manufacturers in the industry with the ability to complete 5G proposals. In 3GPP, the world's most important 5G standardization organization, ZTE has submitted hundreds of proposals in core technology fields such as Novel Numerology, Self contained Frame Structure, FB-OFDM waveform, LDPC coding, MUSA, and NG Core Proposal. In addition to the MUSA and FB-OFDM technologies mentioned above, ZTE is the first to implement on the large-scale antenna array Massive MIMO based on 4G terminals. It has been deployed commercially and is in the forefront of the industry.

Call for joint promotion of 5G benign development

ZTE is an active participant in the discussion and formulation of the 5G standard. According to reports, ZTE has joined more than 40 standardization organizations, alliances and forums, and is an international standard organization/industry such as ITU, 3GPP, IEEE, NGMN, and Japan 5GMF. A member of the Alliance. As a core member of the IMT-2020 (5G) promotion group, ZTE takes the lead in research on more than 30% of the topics: serving as the IMT-2020 IEEE team leader, the network technology group deputy team leader, and the transmission technology group's three core research groups. long.

In the field of 5G, ZTE has deep cooperation with many customers at home and abroad on application requirements, scenario research, new business applications, network architecture innovation, etc., and has already cooperated with China Mobile, T-Mobile, Japan Softbank, Korea KT, Malaysia. U Mobile and other operators signed a 5G strategic cooperation agreement. In May 2016, ZTE fully participated in the large-scale 5G system test of the IMT-2020 (5G) promotion group, and completed the first phase of single-point technology verification in the first batch, including Massive MIMO large-scale antenna technology, which was more than 4 times. The throughput rate. In addition, ZTE is the first manufacturer to complete high-frequency testing, achieving a throughput of more than 10G.

As a core member of the IMT-2020 (5G) promotion group, ZTE appealed to the industry to jointly promote the healthy development of 5G and avoid the fragmentation of the 5G standard. Xiang Jiying said: "5G development is very hot. Some countries and regions want to be preemptive and quicker, and different operators or different countries have different understandings of the use of 5G. In the end, the standard will fall apart. This is the whole industry. The development is unfavorable, so I hope that everyone can concentrate on forming a standard together in a standard organization." In order to avoid fragmentation of the standard, Xiangji Ying believes that the application requirements of 5G should be determined in the early stage of 5G standard formulation. Indicators such as the number of connections of the Internet of Things and network delay are further determined.

Qualcomm's comprehensive technical layout

As the largest terminal chip supplier, Qualcomm supports and supports the formation of a globally unified 5G standard, although this requires the industry to invest a lot of human, financial and material resources. Dr. Edward TIedemann, Senior Vice President of Qualcomm R&D, said in an interview with China Electronics News that the most important task for the 3GPP organization is how to choose the most suitable for global deployment in the 5G era. Core Technology.

Multi-technology area layout

Edward said that many people think that Qualcomm is a leading company in the field of cellular communication and air interface technology, but in fact it is more than that; Qualcomm has a very deep technical accumulation in the entire wireless technology field, such as WiFi technology standard 802.11ax and Bluetooth. Technically, it is a provider; in LTE, various innovative technologies and new services such as LAA (LTE Auxiliary Access) technology, unlicensed spectrum LTE technology, MulTIFire technology, terminal-to-terminal communication, and LTE broadcasting are all in the Continuous development; on 5G, such as massive MIMO and millimeter wave technology, Qualcomm is the first manufacturer in the industry to commercial 802.11ad standard in the 60GHz band. This short-range WiFi standard is regarded as before 5G commercial. A key technology.

In the 5G era, many new use cases are directly related to the Internet of Things. In fact, Edward said, Qualcomm has been deeply involved in the Internet of Things for many years. For example, in the automotive sector, Qualcomm provides communication modules for automotive manufacturers worldwide, including WAN connectivity, WiFi, and Bluetooth. In Europe and Russia, Qualcomm and its partners have established an eCall emergency rescue call system related to the Internet of Vehicles. In addition, a number of companies have been established to promote the development of mobile health and mobile healthcare. In the smart city sector, Qualcomm has solutions for smart meters and smart grids. Edward believes that Qualcomm has many years of layout in all vertical industries and areas of the Internet of Things. In the future, Qualcomm will make more in-depth development in the fields of automobiles and medical care.

Support the establishment of a unified 5G standard

At this year's global 5G conference, the Minister of Industry and Information Technology, Miao Wei, called for the promotion of a globally unified 5G standard. Edward said that Qualcomm strongly endorses and supports the establishment of a unified 5G standard. From 1G, 2G to 3G, we finally have a globally unified LTE standard in the 4G era. I believe that in the 5G era, this global unified connection standard will continue. This is crucial to the realization of the vision of the Internet of Things, in order to bring global economies of scale. He believes that if a company provides products for the global IoT market in the future, the service life of this product will take a long time. This is not like a mobile phone with a relatively high frequency of replacement products, such as in a car or a module or component used in urban infrastructure, including electricity meters and water meters, which requires a relatively long service life, so how to maintain the standard Sustainability will become very important.

However, to achieve globally unified standards, it is necessary to invest a lot of resources, manpower and material resources in the entire industry. Edward said that the essence of 5G is still a communication technology, which is related to the transmission of data between different objects. In this regard, there are more new technologies waiting for everyone to explore, such as how to achieve low latency, achieve massive MIMO, millimeter wave technology. Qualcomm also submitted a number of proposals to 3GPP, suggesting how 3GPP can design air interface technology in the 5G era. At the same time, there will be a lot of technical development and testing inside. Now for the 3GPP organization, the most important task is how to choose the core technology that best fits the global deployment of the 5G era from various proposals.

Bell Labs breaks through millimeter wave technology

On the eve of the first Global 5G Conference, Bell Labs China announced breakthroughs in its use of high-speed wireless transmission and millimeter-wave spectrum, using massive MIMO technology (multi-input and multi-output technology) on the millimeter-wave band. Significant capacity improvements and associated efficiency gains. At the global 5G conference, Gui Luoning, executive vice president and head of technology and innovation of Nokia Communications China and Shanghai Bell, said in an interview with China Electronics News that there are six key technologies in the future 5G, and Bell experiment The studio will conduct innovative research on these key technologies to create tremendous value for users.

Strengthen innovation in key technologies

According to reports, through the prototype with a peak transmission rate of more than 50 Gbps, Bell Labs China successfully achieved spectral efficiency of up to 100 bps/Hz in the 28 GHz millimeter wave band, and its transmission rate allows users to complete multiple HD movies in 8 seconds. download. This technology provides the foundation for 5G network operators to realize business innovations for future applications such as haptic Internet and ultra-low latency HD virtual reality (HD-VR).

According to Gui Luoning, in this millimeter-wave solution, Nokia Bell Labs China has adopted an innovative low-latency air interface to ensure efficient wireless transmission in the millimeter-wave band and improve the end-user experience; Innovative physical layer technology, including beam tracking, guarantees large system capacity and spectral efficiency. Ultra-high-rate transmission and high-efficiency of millimeter-wave spectrum enable operators to have a better user experience for high-speed mobile services, while achieving greater flexibility in 5G network deployment through applications in areas such as wireless backhaul.

In addition to millimeter-wave technology, Gui Luoning said that Bell Labs is also strengthening innovation in other key technologies of 5G. For example, in the new air interface technology that the industry is most concerned about, in order to achieve compatibility with future Internet access requirements, the frame structure and waveform of 5G air interface must show great flexibility, and on this basis, the network should be automated and intelligent. And programmable. Gui Luoning told reporters that Bell Labs is currently researching a new flexible frame structure, regardless of whether the scene is large bandwidth, ultra-dense connection, low latency or low power consumption, there is a flexible frame structure that can be adapted. On the new waveform, Bell Labs has implemented a minimum access unit that defines air ports from 3.75KHz to 120KHz based on service and user type in a software-defined manner.

He believes that in the network delay, the new air interface can support from 0.125 milliseconds to 4 milliseconds; on the network broadband, it can rise from 20M to 1G. New network architecture, new air interface, large-scale antenna array and other technologies, LTE+5G low frequency and WiFi technology form multiple access, and adjust the access of different service types according to software.

The Internet of Things is an emerging and unknown area of ​​development

Bell Labs' consulting model shows that by 2020, WiFi can meet the global estimated 67% of consumer demand, and 14% of demand will follow the current 3G, LTE, small base station popularity and the emergence of new technologies such as 5G. Once satisfied, the remaining 19% of the demand cannot be met. Therefore, network operators need to accelerate the development of 5G and cloud technologies such as NFV and SDN, and adopt new business models to address the demand gap.

Gui Luoning believes that the Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging and unknown area of ​​network development. By 2020, the number of IoT connected devices is expected to grow from 1.6 billion in 2014 to between 20 billion and 46 billion in 2020. Among them, cellular IoT devices will reach between 1.6 billion and 4.6 billion in 2020. Although the application of IoT devices is very large, video sensors and camera devices are not too high in proportion. Therefore, the cellular traffic generated by the Internet of Things in 2020 accounts for only 2% of the total mobile data traffic.

However, from the recent data, the signaling traffic generated in IoT traffic will be much higher than the data traffic. For example, a typical IoT device that consumes 1 MB of traffic requires 2,500 data processing or connections, and the same traffic can be consumed through a single mobile video connection.

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